Updated: Feb 19
Evolution is not a process of how animals gather food and survive. Evolution is an internal process that leads to independent awareness and is displayed during mating and caring for offspring. Inside life forms, instinct reduces and emotional attachment increases. Instinct is inborn survival knowledge. To reduce instinct is to act without self-regard. Risking one’s life or wellbeing, by for instance displaying bright coloured feathers which increases detection by predators, or duelling each other with horns or tusks, is behaving without any self-regard. Acting against inborn survival knowledge by putting your safety at risk reduces instinct. Male animals duel, to show that they have the least self -regard. The victor will pass on a reduced level of instinct.
When instinct is reduced emotional attachment fills the void and thus increases. Emotional attachment is greater care for others such as offspring. The height of emotional attachment is when a parent risks their own life to save that of their offspring. This indicates that for the parent their offspring’s life is more important than their own. Over the entire course of evolution male animals self-sacrificed and in this manner reduced instinct; as a consequence, emotional attachment expanded in the females.
When levels of instinct have reduced to new lows and emotional attachment increased to new heights, new physical life forms evolve to give expression to the new levels of instinct and emotional attachment. This process is evolution! It explains the change from insects to reptiles to birds, to monotremes, marsupials, mammals and finally humans.
Less instinct means that new arrivals are born without inborn knowledge and are therefore vulnerable and helpless. More emotional attachment is seen in the mother as her body or behaviour changed to better care for and protect her offspring.
Reduced instinct and increased emotional attachment inevitably deliver independent awareness.
Life on Earth first appeared in the shape of single-celled organisms.
Single-celled organisms can best be described as having extreme instincts. Instinct is innate survival knowledge that allows a single-celled organism to rapidly adapt to the environment. Innate survival knowledge means that single-celled organisms simply know how to do things. This knowledge is heritable as it is passed on to divided off cells.
Single-celled organisms reproduce by cell division. This means that a single cell can be all alone in the world and can still reproduce. Reproducing through cell division or cloning is extremely effective. Imagine that there is only one person in the world and that this person used cell division to reproduce. In less than 24 hours this single person would populate the entire world.
With this comparison in mind imagine how many single-celled organisms there are in the world after 4 billion years of cell division. And this process is still happening every minute and every hour of every day! Reproduction through cell division means that there is no change as the divided off cells are exact clones of the parent.
After 3.5 billion years, something unexpected happened. The single-celled organisms divided, but this time they did not clone themselves but divided into two different cells each with its unique structure and characteristics. We refer to these two different cells as male and female.
This separation of the male and female characteristics each in their body structure is the momentous event that heralds the process of changing life forms or as we know it, evolution.
From the single-celled organisms evolved the first animals the insects. The main difference between insects and single-celled organisms is that insects reproduce through sexual reproduction. This means that the self-centeredness and solitary life of the single-cell have drastically changed and this is expressed in the new bodies and behaviour of the insects.
Unlike single-celled organisms, insects have to find each other to mate. To mate, they must cooperate with each other.
In these first animals, the males of most insect species are much smaller than the females. The male Golden Orb spider for instance is dwarfed by the female. To mate, numerous male insects run the risk of being eaten by the female. Even after 450 million years of evolution the male insects have not changed and are still at risk of being devoured by the females if they want to mate. The reason is that this is how life unfolds. It cannot be any different. The males must risk their lives to reduce instinct.
In non-carnivorous insects, males will carry a greater risk in other ways. For instance, in the Blue Mountain or the Ulysses butterfly, the males have larger areas of iridescent blue than the females.
Another example is the birdwing butterfly. The female is quite dull in colour while the male is a vibrant green with a bright yellow body. The brighter colours in the males make them stand out and easier to detect by predators.
The examples of life risk-taking by the males in the insect world are numerous. Just think of the praying mantis. It does not matter where you turn in the animal world the male will always do something that will place his life at greater risk in comparison to the female. Males must place their lives at risk. They have no choice. The male’s purpose in life is to reduce instinct.
Evolution only moves in one direction and that is to less instinct and greater emotional attachment. The reptiles are the animals that show less instinct and increased emotional attachment than the insects.
Rather than offspring abandonment so prominent in the insects, lizards, snakes, and crocodiles show greater care for their offspring. Crocodiles protect their nests and the python brood her eggs.
Crocodiles assist their young into the water and protect them.
There is a change in the reptilian male’s risk-taking behaviour compared to the male insects. Crocodile males duel each other. The victor is the male that has the least self-regard and stays the course. The least self-regard means that he has the least instinct. It is passing on the least instinct which is the important contribution when he mates with his partner.
Instinct in reptiles is still at a high level and this can be seen because the young reptiles can feed by themselves which means that they innately know how to find food.
The animals following the reptiles are not stronger or more ferocious or better at surviving than the reptiles. They have changed in the only direction that evolution can change, and that is that they have less instinct and have increased emotional attachment. The animals following the reptiles are the birds.
Birds have greater emotional attachment than reptiles as many species mate for life. Birds also built nests and protect them. Evolution is a move to greater emotional attachment and birds demonstrate that because they take care of their offspring further than the reptilians. Birds feed their young!
Instinct or innate survival knowledge is further reduced in the birds and this can be seen because birds are born helpless and many bird chicks have to learn from their parents how to find food.
Self-sacrificing behaviour is obvious in many species of birds where the male is brighter coloured, have feathers that are a hindrance to flight, and many even make sounds to attract attention to themselves. For instance, birds of paradise gather in groups in treetops. As if they don’t stand out enough with their bright coloured feathers. They are not good fliers and together they make loud noises attracting attention to themselves. Females only join the group to mate. If the female remains after mating, the males will chase her away. The males chase her away because as long as the female is in their presence she is in danger. The plain-coloured female will then leave, built a nest, and rear her young by herself.
When there is no difference in appearance between the male and female, the males will behave in a manner that increases the risk of their demise. This behaviour can be by protecting the eggs and rearing the chicks. A good example is the emperor penguin. The female lays her single egg and leaves. The male then remains in the arctic winter in virtually total darkness for three months without food. Enduring temperatures as low as -50°C. During this time, the male doesn’t take in any food and will lose as much as 40% of his body weight
Another example is the Cassowary. The female will lay her eggs and leave. Some of those eggs will have been fertilised by other males. The males brood the eggs and will not eat or leave the nest for two months. The male will then rear the chicks and defend them.
The animals following the birds are again not stronger or more ferocious or better at surviving but changed in the only direction that evolution can change, and that is they have less instinct and have increased emotional attachment. The animals following the birds are the monotremes.
It would be impossible to argue that the platypus and the echidna emerged because they are better at surviving than the reptiles or birds.
The difference in the monotremes from the birds is how they feed their young. Birds feed their young by finding food, digesting it, and regurgitating it to their young.
The change from the birds to the monotremes is that the monotreme’s body has changed to produce food in the form of milk that oozes out of her belly skin for her offspring. This physical change that does not deliver a survival advantage, but is simply greater care for their offspring, is evolution. The monotremes are not stronger, faster, or more ferocious, than their ancestors the birds and the reptiles. Neither has the monotreme's body changed because of a meteorite strike, or other environmental change. The monotremes’ body changed in the only direction that evolution changes and displays less instinct and greater emotional attachment, by producing milk for her offspring.
Because the monotreme mother is the food source for her offspring she must always be close to her offspring. This enhances their emotional attachment to each other.
The platypus lives in freshwater streams in Australia.
The platypus mating ritual is an excellent illustration of male risk-taking behaviour. Only the male platypus has venomous spurs on their rear feet. The venom glands only become active during the mating season. During mating season the males duel with each other. Males wrap their legs around their opponents and viciously stab them with sharp spurs. If the male platypus wants to mate, he must take the risk of being stabbed by a poisonous spur. With this risk-taking, males indicate that in them self-regard is reduced and thus instinct is at a low level. From the reduced level of instinct, the next phase of animals evolves which in this case are the marsupials.
In the marsupial, emotional attachment increased and instinct reduced and this is expressed by the development of a pouch and a fully developed nipple. The marsupial gives birth to tiny underdeveloped young, only weighing a few grams.
Self-preservation or egocentricity is still strong in the marsupial. This means that although the marsupial does not desert her offspring in time of danger, they are not hindered by the weight of a fully internally developed offspring.
The second matter that developed further in the marsupial is that in them milk no longer oozes through the skin, instead, the marsupial developed a nipple. The young of the marsupial climbs into the pouch and latches on to the nipple and the mother’s milk is all the nourishment that the youngster requires.
The marsupial males duel each other to reduce instinct. Kangaroos for instance kick each other with their powerful hind legs to demonstrate that in them instinct has reduced to a lower level than that of their opponents. It is this continuous process of self-sacrifice that creates the avenue for emotional attachment to expand signalling the arrival of the mammals.
The mammalian mother’s body changed to accommodate internal gestation and grew breast for the production of milk. Not just a nipple but fully developed breasts. The young mammals develop internally and are born at an advanced stage of development. The mammalian mother is severely hindered by the weight of her developing breasts, placental organ, and young. This mother does not desert her defenceless and helpless young but protects them with her life. That the young are born defenceless and helpless indicating that instinct is at a very low level.
Evolution always continues in one direction and that is to a further reduced level of instinct and an increased level of emotional attachment.
Therefore, evolution progressed in the mammalian phase from the primates. From all the mammalian animals, the primates are the only ones with an exceptional attribute of arms and hands. The arms and hands do not provide the primates with a greater survival advantage. The hands are soft and useless in defence against a predator like a tiger, lion, or eagle.
The primates’ arms and hands are an extraordinary attribute that promotes emotional attachment. With the arrival of the arms and hands, primate parents were for the first time in evolution able to hold and caress their offspring. The arms and hands allow a primate parent to explore the body of their offspring and each other in a manner foreign to any other animal. With their hands, primates were able to convey feelings of affection for each other simply through touch. It is from this heightened level of emotional attachment in the primates that evolution proceeded and from which Humans emerged.
This change from primate to human explains why we have tools, built houses, and cities. It explains why we built planes and rockets. It explains why we have wars, and it explains why we care a lot but also dislike. This single change from primate to human explains all our behaviours. It is not a string of events that explains our behaviour rather it is a single change in the only way that evolution can change from the primates to humans, that explains all our behaviours. Only through understanding how we evolved can we attain self-awareness.
I would like you to think about how bizarre our scientific quest is today. We live on a planet that is packed with life. Every inch is full of life and filled with wonderfully inspiring and interesting creatures. Yet we are exploring space?! We fly to the moon to discover what?! Life is here on Earth! Imagine that we were living on the Moon, where do you think we would try to get to? Mars or Venus? Or do you think that we would want to get to Earth? We are on Earth. Why would you want to go to the Moon? It is like living in the rainforest and trying to uncover the secrets of life in the desert. Life is here. We do not have to fly anywhere. Everything about life and its origins can be explored and unravelled right here on Earth. To uncover the truth, we have to be honest even if we discover facts that we don’t like. That is tough, and that is science!
I am putting a challenge to you. How do we know that instinct further reduced in us? How can we conclude that emotional attachment or love further expanded in us? The main question is how did the further reduced level of instinct and increased level of emotional attachment produced in us an entirely different awareness to that of the animals?
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